Mad About Berries

Composting Techniques: The Beginners Guide

In an era where sustainability has transitioned from a choice to a necessity, composting emerges as a key practice in the crusade for a healthier planet.

Through advanced composting techniques, we not only enrich our soil but also contribute to a sustainable cycle of growth and renewal.

Published: March 14, 2024.

earthworms 2 w600px

Understanding the Core of Composting

Composting is a natural process that transforms organic waste into a nutrient-rich soil conditioner, invigorating your garden's health.

This eco-friendly practice not only enhances plant growth but also reduces the reliance on chemical fertilizers, mitigates landfill waste, and curbs greenhouse gas emissions.

The Science Behind Composting

At its heart, composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials by microorganisms.

This process converts raw organic matter into stable humus, releasing essential nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium back into the soil.

Selecting Your Composting Method

Traditional Composting

Traditional composting involves creating a compost pile or bin where organic materials are accumulated and allowed to decompose over time.

This method is ideal for gardeners with ample outdoor space and requires regular turning to aerate the pile, speeding up the decomposition process.

Vermicomposting: Harnessing Worm Power

Vermicomposting utilizes red wigglers to break down organic waste more efficiently than traditional methods.

This technique is suitable for indoor and outdoor settings, producing both nutrient-rich compost and liquid fertilizer, known as "worm tea."

earthworms w600px

Bokashi Composting: The Anaerobic Alternative

Bokashi composting is an anaerobic process that ferments organic waste in a sealed container.

This method is fast, odorless, and can handle types of waste typically not recommended for traditional composting, such as dairy and meat scraps.

How to Choose the Right Composter?

Choosing the right composter is a critical decision for any gardener looking to enrich their soil while contributing positively to the environment.

The perfect composter not only suits your garden's needs but also aligns with your lifestyle and sustainability goals.

Consider Your Space and Volume Needs

The size of your garden and the amount of organic waste you produce are key factors in determining the right composter. If space is limited, such as in urban settings, a compact, enclosed bin or a tumbler might be the best choice.

For larger gardens that generate more waste, an open bin or a multi-bin system could be more appropriate, allowing for greater volumes of compost.

Assess Your Composting Goals

Identify what you primarily want from your composting experience. Are you looking for a quick turnaround, ease of use, or the ability to process a wide range of materials?

Tumblers offer rapid decomposition with easy turning, while traditional bins support a wider variety of organic materials. Vermicomposting is excellent for indoor use and produces both solid compost and liquid fertilizer.

Evaluate Different Types of Composters

Enclosed Bins

Enclosed bins are ideal for small to medium-sized gardens and help keep pests out. They are suitable for slow composting and require minimal maintenance.


Compost tumblers are enclosed containers that can be turned to mix compost materials easily. They offer faster decomposition by providing aeration and are great for those looking for a less labor-intensive option.

Vermicomposting Systems

Vermicomposting uses worms to break down organic waste. These systems are compact and can be kept indoors, making them perfect for those without outdoor space.

Open Bins and Piles

For larger volumes of waste and a more hands-on approach, open bins or simple compost piles might be the answer. They require more space and active management but are versatile and cost-effective.

Material and Durability

Consider the material of the composter for durability and maintenance. Plastic bins are lightweight and affordable, while wood adds a natural aesthetic but may require more upkeep. Metal tumblers are durable but can be more expensive.

Ease of Use and Maintenance

A good composter should be easy to fill, turn, and empty. Tumblers with a crank handle are straightforward to mix, while bins might require manual aerating with a pitchfork or compost aerator. Ensure the composter has easy access to add materials and harvest compost.

Environmental Impact

Lastly, consider the environmental footprint of the composter. Recycled plastic models offer an eco-friendly option, while wooden composters from sustainably sourced timber can also be a green choice.

The right composter for you depends on your garden's size, your composting goals, and your personal preferences in maintenance and environmental impact.

Maximizing Compost Quality

The Perfect Balance: Greens and Browns

Achieving the right balance between nitrogen-rich "greens" and carbon-rich "browns" is crucial for creating high-quality compost. Aim for a ratio of approximately 1 part greens to 3 parts browns to ensure an optimal environment for microorganisms.

Aeration and Moisture: The Key to Success

Proper aeration and moisture are vital for sustaining the microorganisms responsible for decomposition. Your compost should be as moist as a wrung-out sponge and turned regularly to introduce fresh oxygen.

compost pile

What to Compost and What Not to Compost?

Knowing what can and cannot go into your compost bin is crucial for a successful composting process.

What to Compost

Greens (Nitrogen-Rich Materials)

  • Fruit and vegetable scraps: Any part of your fruits and vegetables can be composted, including peels, cores, and scraps.
  • Coffee grounds and tea bags: These are excellent nitrogen sources. Just make sure to remove any plastic from tea bags.
  • Fresh grass clippings: These are a great source of nitrogen but should be added in thin layers to prevent matting.
  • Plant trimmings: Non-diseased plant and flower trimmings can add nutrients back into your compost.

Browns (Carbon-Rich Materials)

  • Dry leaves: Collect these in the fall and add them to your compost throughout the year.
  • Straw and hay: These materials are ideal for adding structure to your compost pile.
  • Shredded newspaper, cardboard, and paper: Ensure they are not glossy and are torn into small pieces.
  • Sawdust and wood chips: Use sparingly and only from untreated wood to avoid chemicals in your compost.

Other Compostables

  • Eggshells: Crushed eggshells add calcium to your compost, but they should be rinsed first.
  • Cotton and wool rags: Natural fibers break down well but should be cut into small pieces.
  • Hair and fur: These can be composted but in moderation, as they decompose slowly.
  • Fireplace ashes: Wood ashes can be added in small amounts to neutralize acidic compost.

What Not to Compost

  • Meats and Dairy Products: These materials can attract pests and produce unpleasant odors as they decompose. They're also prone to developing harmful bacteria.
  • Fats, Oils, and Grease: Like meats and dairy, fats can attract unwanted pests and are difficult to break down, potentially upsetting the balance of your compost.
  • Diseased Plants: Introducing diseased plants into your compost can spread pathogens and infect your garden when the compost is used.
  • Pet Wastes: Dog and cat feces can contain parasites and pathogens harmful to humans. Avoid composting these materials, especially if you'll use the compost on food crops.
  • Treated Wood Products: Treated, painted, or pressure-treated wood can release harmful chemicals into your compost and, subsequently, your garden.
  • Invasive Weeds: Seeds from invasive weeds can survive the composting process and spread throughout your garden when the compost is applied.
  • Synthetic Chemicals: Avoid composting materials that have come into contact with pesticides, herbicides, or synthetic fertilizers, as they can harm the beneficial microorganisms in your compost.

Maintaining the right balance between green and brown materials in your compost pile is essential for creating high-quality compost efficiently.

As mentioned before, aim for a mix of approximately one part green (nitrogen-rich) materials to three parts brown (carbon-rich) materials by volume.

compost material

This ratio ensures that your compost pile heats up properly, facilitating the rapid breakdown of organic matter while avoiding issues such as unpleasant odors or a slow decomposition process.

Green materials, like kitchen scraps and lawn clippings, provide the moisture and nitrogen necessary for microbial activity, while brown materials, such as dry leaves and shredded paper, offer the carbon that microbes need to thrive and help keep the pile aerated.

Achieving this balance is a key step in nurturing a healthy, active composting environment that turns waste into garden gold.

Innovative Composting Techniques

Layering for Efficiency

Adopt a layering technique to maintain balance in your compost pile. Start with a layer of browns, followed by a layer of greens, and repeat. Sprinkle water between layers to maintain moisture.

Compost Teas: Liquid Gold for Your Garden

Compost tea is a nutrient-rich liquid made by steeping finished compost in water. This potent solution can be applied directly to plant foliage or soil, offering a fast-acting nutrient boost.

Troubleshooting Common Composting Challenges

Addressing Odors and Pests

Odors and pests are common challenges in composting but can be easily managed. Odors typically indicate anaerobic conditions, which can be resolved by adding more browns and turning the pile to improve aeration.

Securely covering your compost and maintaining the correct balance of materials can deter pests.

Embracing Composting for a Sustainable Lifestyle

Composting is more than just a gardening technique; it's a commitment to a more sustainable lifestyle.

compost material 2

Diverting waste from landfills and enriching our gardens help us contribute to a healthier planet. Whether you're a seasoned gardener or a green living enthusiast, integrating advanced composting practices into your routine can have a profound impact on your garden and the environment.

Incorporating these advanced composting techniques will not only elevate your gardening game but also play a crucial role in building a sustainable future. With each compost pile, we step closer to a greener, more vibrant world.

Go to Top