Mad About Berries

How to Grow, Harvest, and Dry Basil

Basil, a fragrant herb revered in many cultures worldwide, is not only cherished for its aromatic presence in the culinary world but also for its versatility in various dishes.

Belonging to the mint family, this leafy green can transform a simple meal into a vibrant, flavorful experience. Basil is particularly celebrated for its role in Italian and Southeast Asian cuisines, where it adds a fresh, peppery essence to everything from pasta to pho.

Published: June 11, 2024.

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Overview of Basil: Varieties and Popular Uses

There are several varieties of basil, each with its unique flavor profile and appearance.

The most commonly known type is Sweet Basil, which is a staple in Italian dishes such as pesto and caprese salad.

On the other hand, Thai Basil, with its hint of licorice, is indispensable in Thai cooking, providing depth to curries and soups.

Purple Basil, with its striking dark leaves, offers a milder taste and is often used more for its ornamental appeal than its culinary uses.

Lemon Basil is a variety known for its lemony fragrance and flavor, which comes from its high concentration of the chemical compound citral that is also found in lemon oil.

Cinnamon Basil is a unique variety that features a spicy, cinnamon-like aroma due to the compound cinnamate it contains, which is the same chemical that gives cinnamon its characteristic smell and flavor. Cinnamon basil has dark green, glossy leaves with purple stems and sometimes flowers with small, pink blooms.

Regardless of the type, basil can be grown in pots or in the ground, making it accessible to gardeners of all levels.

Choosing the Right Basil Variety

Selecting the right type of basil to grow depends on your culinary preferences and the climate of your garden.

Sweet Basil

Sweet Basil is renowned for its robust, peppery flavor, which is the backbone of classic pesto. This variety thrives in warm, sunny conditions and is often harvested in the mid to late summer.

Its large, bright green leaves are a common sight in gardens and are perfect for a wide array of recipes, from fresh salads to infused oils.

Thai Basil

Thai Basil distinguishes itself with its spicy, anise-tinged flavor, which makes it an essential ingredient in many Southeast Asian dishes.

It performs well in hot climates and can be used in cooking at high temperatures without losing its vibrant flavor. Thai Basil is tougher and slightly more bitter than its Sweet counterpart, making it ideal for stir-fries and soups.

Purple Basil

Though Purple Basil is similar in shape to Sweet Basil, its deep purple leaves set it apart, adding a pop of color to gardens and dishes.

It has a slightly less intense flavor, which makes it more versatile for decorative use in cocktails and as a garnish. Purple Basil is also used in some culinary preparations where visual appeal is as important as taste.

Lemon Basil

Lemon Basil is popular in a variety of culinary uses, particularly in Southeast Asian and Indonesian cuisines, where it's celebrated for adding a zesty lemon flavor to dishes without the additional acidity of lemon juice.

This variety of basil is excellent in salads and fish dishes and is a great complement to tea and beverages.

Cinnamon Basil

Cinnamon Basil is used similarly to other basil varieties in cooking and baking. It’s particularly good in dishes that benefit from a hint of cinnamon warmth, such as fruit salads, desserts, and even some savory dishes.

This variety can also be brewed into teas or used to infuse oils and vinegars, adding a spicy, aromatic twist to traditional basil applications.

pizza with basil

Starting Your Basil Plants

Growing basil can be a rewarding endeavor, especially when you start from seeds or cuttings. Understanding the nuances of each method can help you choose the best approach for your garden.

Propagation: Seeds vs. Cuttings

Basil can be easily started from seeds or can be propagated through cuttings from an existing plant. Starting from seeds is a simple and cost-effective method, allowing you to grow a large number of plants.

Alternatively, cuttings can be taken from healthy basil plants, providing a quicker start since they can root and grow in water before being transplanted into soil.

The Best Time to Plant Basil

The ideal time to plant basil is after the last frost of the spring, as basil is sensitive to cold weather. For most regions, this means planting can begin in late spring to early summer. Basil thrives in temperatures between 50°F and 80°F, making it a perfect summer herb.

Soil and Planting Requirements

To ensure the success of your basil plants, the right soil and planting techniques are crucial. Basil prefers rich, well-draining soil that allows its roots to develop fully without waterlogging.

Choosing the Right Soil Mix

A light, fertile mix with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0 is ideal for basil. You can create a suitable environment by mixing two parts potting soil to one part compost or well-rotted manure.

This blend ensures that the soil remains nutrient-rich and has adequate drainage, both essential for healthy basil growth.

Optimal Planting Techniques for Healthy Growth

When planting basil, ensure that each plant has enough room to grow. Space basil plants about 12 to 18 inches apart in your garden.

If you’re planting in pots, choose containers that are at least 8 inches in diameter and have good drainage holes.

Plant seeds or seedlings just below the surface, about 1/4-inch deep, and gently press the soil down to eliminate air pockets.

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Light and Temperature Conditions

Basil’s growth and flavor are significantly influenced by its exposure to light and temperature.

The Ideal Amount of Sunlight for Basil

Basil thrives in full sun, requiring at least six to eight hours of direct sunlight daily. If you are growing basil indoors, position it in a south-facing window or supplement it with grow lights if natural light is insufficient.

Temperature Preferences and Limitations

Basil is sensitive to cold and does best in warm environments. Ideal growing temperatures are between 70°F and 80°F.

It’s important to protect basil from temperatures below 50°F, as they can cause stress and stunt the plant's growth. During cooler months or unexpected cold snaps, consider using cloches or row covers to protect outdoor plants.

Watering and Nutrition

Consistent watering and proper nutrition are key to producing lush, flavorful basil leaves.

Proper Watering Techniques for Basil

Basil needs to be watered regularly to maintain moist, but not soggy, soil. Allow the top inch of soil to dry out before watering again to avoid overwatering, which can lead to root rot.

Early morning watering is best, as it allows the leaves to dry throughout the day, reducing the risk of fungal diseases.

Essential Nutrients and Fertilizer Recommendations

While basil is not overly demanding regarding fertilizer, feeding your plants can promote more vigorous growth and greater yields.

Use a balanced, water-soluble fertilizer once every four to six weeks, particularly if you are harvesting leaves regularly.

Additionally, incorporating organic matter like compost into the soil can provide a slow release of nutrients, which is beneficial for continuous growth.

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Common Pests and Diseases

Basil, like many plants, is susceptible to a range of pests and diseases. Effective management involves early identification and appropriate responses to ensure the health and productivity of the plants.

Identifying and Managing Common Threats

Common pests that affect basil include aphids, spider mites, and whiteflies, which can be identified by the sticky residue or webbing they leave on the underside of leaves.

Diseases like basil downy mildew and fusarium wilt are also prevalent, characterized by yellowing leaves and stunted growth. Regular inspection of your basil plants is key to early detection and management of these issues.

Organic Pest Control Solutions

Organic methods are preferable for managing pests and diseases to keep your herbs safe for consumption.

Neem oil, insecticidal soaps, and horticultural oils are effective against most pests and can be used as part of a regular maintenance schedule.

For fungal diseases, ensure good air circulation around your plants and consider using organic fungicides like copper spray as a preventive measure.

Pruning and Harvesting

Proper pruning and harvesting techniques not only increase the yield but also encourage healthier basil plants.

How to Prune Basil for Fuller Growth

Pruning is essential for promoting a bushier basil plant. Regularly pinching off the tip of each stem just above a leaf pair can encourage the plant to branch out.

This should be done every few weeks during the growing season to prevent the plant from flowering, which can reduce the flavor and quantity of the leaves.

Tips for Harvesting Basil Leaves

The best time to harvest basil is in the morning when the essential oils are strongest. Use scissors or your fingers to gently remove the leaves or cut whole stems if needed.

Regular harvesting encourages new growth and can extend the productivity of the plant throughout the season.

penne pasta with basil

How to Dry Basil?

Drying basil is a wonderful way to preserve the herb's aromatic flavor, making it available for use long after the fresh growing season has ended. Here’s a detailed guide on how to dry basil effectively:

Harvesting Basil for Drying

  • Timing: The best time to harvest basil for drying is just before it flowers when the leaves are at their most flavorful. Choose a dry, sunny morning after the dew has evaporated but before the sun is at its hottest.
  • Selecting Leaves: Pick healthy, mature leaves, avoiding any that are discolored, damaged, or diseased. Use sharp scissors or garden shears to cut whole stems to promote the continued growth of the plant.

Preparing Basil for Drying

  • Cleaning: Gently rinse the basil under cool running water to remove any dirt or insects. Be careful not to bruise the leaves.
  • Drying: Shake off excess water and pat the leaves dry with a clean towel. It’s important to remove as much moisture as possible to prevent mold during the drying process.

Choosing a Drying Method

There are several methods to dry basil, each with its own benefits:

Air Drying

  • Setup: Tie stems together using string or rubber bands. Hang the bundles upside down in a warm, well-ventilated area out of direct sunlight. Closets, attics, or a shaded corner of a room are ideal locations.
  • Duration: It typically takes about 1-2 weeks for basil to dry completely using this method. The leaves should feel dry and crumbly to the touch when ready.

Oven Drying

  • Setup: Preheat your oven to the lowest possible setting, usually between 170°F to 200°F (75°C to 95°C). Arrange the basil leaves in a single layer on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper.
  • Duration: Place the baking sheet in the oven. Leave the oven door slightly ajar to allow moisture to escape. Check the leaves every 20 minutes, and turn them occasionally to ensure even drying. This process usually takes between 1 to 4 hours.

Dehydrator Drying

  • Setup: If you have a food dehydrator, lay the basil leaves in a single layer on the dehydrator trays. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for setting the temperature (usually set around 95°F to 115°F or 35°C to 46°C).
  • Duration: Drying times in a dehydrator can vary depending on the temperature and humidity, typically ranging from 12 to 24 hours.

Storing Dried Basil

  • Checking Dryness: Ensure the leaves are completely dry. Any remaining moisture can lead to mold.
  • Storage Containers: Crumble the dried leaves and store them in an airtight container. Glass jars, sealable plastic bags, or vacuum-sealed containers work well.
  • Location: Store your dried basil in a cool, dark place to preserve its color and flavor. Properly dried and stored basil can last for up to a year.

Using Dried Basil

Dried basil is more concentrated in flavor than fresh, so use about one-third the amount you would use if fresh. It is ideal for use in sauces, stews, soups, and marinades.

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How to Freeze Basil?

Freezing fresh basil is an excellent method for preserving its flavor, and doing so in chopped form in resealable plastic bags or pots provides convenient, ready-to-use portions for later use. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to quick-freeze fresh basil leaves:

Preparation of Basil Leaves

Start by selecting healthy, vibrant leaves from your basil plant. It’s best to pick your basil just before you plan to freeze it to ensure it retains the maximum flavor and aroma.

Rinse the leaves gently under cold water to remove any dirt or debris, then thoroughly pat them dry with paper towels.

Removing as much moisture as possible is crucial to prevent ice crystals from forming, which can lead to freezer burn and affect the texture and flavor of the basil.

Chopping the Basil

Once the basil leaves are dry, use a sharp knife to chop them into your desired size.

Chopping the leaves before freezing is a convenient way to have them recipe-ready, saving you time when you're ready to cook. You can chop the basil coarsely or finely, depending on how you plan to use it.

Quick Freezing the Basil

To quick freeze the chopped basil, spread the pieces out on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper.

Make sure the chopped leaves are in a single layer and not clumped together; this prevents them from freezing into a solid block, making it easier to take out only what you need later.

Place the tray in the freezer and freeze the basil until the pieces are individually frozen, which typically takes about 1-2 hours. This step is crucial as it ensures that the basil freezes separately and doesn’t stick together in the bags or pots.

Storing in Resealable Plastic Bags or Pots

Once the basil pieces are frozen, quickly transfer them to resealable plastic bags or small freezer-safe pots.

If using bags, press out as much air as possible before sealing to minimize exposure to air, which can degrade the quality and flavor over time.

Label the bags or pots with the date of freezing so you can keep track of how long the basil has been stored.

Note: it is also possible, and IMHO much simpler, to place chopped basil leaves in the bags and pots before freezing. But, some leaves may stick together no matter how you dry them before freezing.


Frozen basil can be used directly from the freezer in cooked dishes such as soups, stews, and sauces. There’s no need to thaw the basil first, as it can be added directly to your pot or pan.

Troubleshooting Common Problems

Even the most attentive gardeners can encounter issues when growing basil. Recognizing common problems and knowing how to address them can help save your plants and ensure a bountiful harvest.

Yellowing Leaves, Wilting, and Other Issues

Yellowing leaves can result from several factors, including overwatering, underfeeding, or a lack of sunlight.

Wilting, on the other hand, often indicates water stress, either too much or too little or root damage from pests. Plants that are spindly or weak typically suffer from inadequate light.

Solutions to Revive Struggling Basil Plants

Adjusting care is crucial for reviving struggling basil plants. Ensure they are receiving the right amount of water and sunlight.

If overwatered, let the soil dry out a bit more between waterings. If underfed, apply a balanced liquid fertilizer according to the product directions.

Plants with pest issues should be treated with organic pesticides, and good air circulation should be ensured to prevent future infestations.

tost avocado basil

Growing basil is a rewarding endeavor for any gardener, offering fresh flavors for a variety of dishes and a delightful aroma for the garden.

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